Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nerves – A group of nerve cells that have a system with such an opposite action that it can take the form of an action on the nerve.
In this discussion, we will explain clearly and briefly about sympathetic nerves and parasympathetic nerves, do you know what nerves are? Not even foreign is not hear that term? Yuukk… To find out the explanation, let’s go…. Follow the article below.
What are nerves?
Understanding the nervous system is a structure consisting of several components of nerve cells (neuron). The nervous system, along with a hormonal system, has the function of maintaining the body’s function.
In general, the nervous system as a regulator. For example, muscle contraction from changes in internal organs, which is rapid, with the rate of secretion by several different glands to the endocrine.
The nervous system in humans has a special and complex regulatory nature. The nervous system can receive millions of stimuli from various types of organs. All these stimuli will come together to determine what the body’s response will be. Stimuli such as light, temperature, gravity, cold and heat can come from outside the body.
While the stimulation of the body, namely thirst, hunger, pain and others. In response to these stimuli, our bodies will need three components, namely, receptors for receptors as stimulation, nervous system for receptors, processing and transmitting a result for stimuli to be processed to effectors and effectors for cells or organs to be processed. used in response. stimulation.
Sympathetic Nervous System
The sympathetic nervous system consists of nerve cells, which are located at the front of the spine and extend from the vertebrae to the coccyx.
What is the sympathetic nerve? it is an arrangement that is based on the spinal cord as it is located along the spinal column, which is attached to the human body.
The sympathetic nervous system has a ganglion and a nerve node along the spine towards the anterior back, from the lower neck to the tailbone. The sympathetic nervous system consists of 25 pairs of nerves. Each nerve node can be connected to form two rows i.e. the right and left row.
Each node is connected by a spinal cord. Nerves travel from each node to the kidneys, lungs, heart and other organs. From each nerve, it breaks down the nerve fibers that go to the body’s organs, such as blood vessels and the heart.
Sympathetic nervous system function
The functions of the sympathetic nervous system are as follows:
- Speed up the heartbeat.
- It can increase an arterial pressure.
- To inhibit the secretion of bile.
- It can enlarge the bronchi.
- Inhibits the formation of urine.
- There are folds against the skin.
- Can dilate with pupil.
- Dilate against blood vessels.
- Inhibits bladder contractions.
- It activates the sweat glands and allows perspiration to occur.
- Reduces saliva secretion and movement in digestion.
- It increases and maintains a certain amount of circulation to the heart and skeletal muscles.
- It can expand against the alveolar space against the lungs so that the volume of air or that is exchanged is greater.
- It can increase the release of adrenaline.
- Inhibits a mechanism of intestinal peristalsis.
- It dilates the pupil and relaxes the eyepiece so more light enters.
- Improves blood circulation by increasing heart rate.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System it is a network of connected nerves that can be distributed throughout the body.
The parasympathetic nervous system is in the form of rods associated with ganglia that spread throughout the body. Nerve fibers from the parasympathetic nervous system reach organs that can work under the influence of the sympathetic nervous system.
Parasympathetic nervous system function
The functions of the parasympathetic nervous system are:
- Reduction of the bronchi of the lungs when the body is at rest.
- Stimulates production with urine.
- Develop the hair against the skin.
- Secretions triggered in bile.
- It can shrink the pupil.
- Accelerates peristalsis in the intestine.
- It increases the diameter of blood vessels and can increase blood flow to the digestive system, which will support the work of the intestines in digesting food.
- It can narrow blood vessels.
- Increases salivary secretion and can move in a digestive tract.
- It can reduce the release of adrenaline.
- Accelerates contraction with the bladder.
- Accelerate the production of saliva.
- Decreases heart rate.
- Lowers a blood pressure.
- Supports the process of glycogen synthesis (muscle glucose hormone).
- It stimulates in an activity the genital glands.
- Restrictions in pulmonary circulation and skeletal muscle.
Similarities between the sympathetic nerve and the parasympathetic nerve
In the similarities between sympathetic nerves and parasympathetic nerves, there will be similarities between the two nerves belonging to various parts of an autonomic nervous system, which has a system that functions like tissues and organs of the body.
Furthermore, these two sympathetic nerves with parasympathetic nerves have ganglia to connect effectors with various nervous systems located in the central body.
Hence the discussion that we can convey clearly and briefly about the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nerves. Hope this thread can be helpful and helpful to you.