Structure, Classification and Hadith Qudsi!

Structure, Classification And Hadith Qudsi!

Understanding Hadith: Structure, Classification and Hadith Qudsi! – Hadith is one of the guidelines used by Muslims in carrying out various types of activities, both related to world affairs and activities related to the affairs of the beyond. Hadith is the second source of Islamic religious law after the holy book Al – Quran. If a subject is not explained in the Quran, then Muslims will use the second source, namely Hadith.


Definition and Understanding of Hadith

Definition Of Hadith: Hadith Structure, Classification And Hadith Qudsi

Basically, the term hadith comes from Arabic, that is, from the word Al-hadith which means speech, conversation or even speech. If interpreted from the basic word, then the meaning of hadith is any writing that comes from the words or conversations of Prophet Muhammad SAW. In the terminology of Islam itself, it is explained that hadith is any writing that reports or records all the words, actions and behavior of the Prophet Muhammad. As explained above, hadith is one of the guidelines used by Muslims in carrying out activities or actions.


Literally, hadith means speech or conversation. Meanwhile, according to the terminology in Islam, hadith are provisions and laws in Islam that come from words, actions, along with provisions and also the approval of Prophet Muhammad. Hadith is also one of the sources of law in Islam, in addition to the Quran, Ijma and Qiyas.


Hadith structure

The hadith structure consists of two main components, namely the sanad/nisad (speaker chain) and honor (editorial). Example: Information Musaddad said as reported by Shu’bah Yahya, from Qatada of Anas of the Prophet that he said: “perfect faith is in a person in you who he loves for his brother as he loves himself” – Hadith narrated by Bukhari .


  1. Year

Sanad is a chain of hadith speakers/narrators (narrators). Rawi is the giver of hadith (in the examples above: Bukhari, Musaddad, Yahya, Shu’bah, Qatada and Anas). The initial Sanad hadith is the person who recorded it in his book (the hadith book); This person is called a mudawwin or mukharrij. A hadith can have several sanads with the number of speakers/narrators varying in the layers of the sanad; The inner layer is called thabaqah sanad. The meaning of sanad and the number of speakers in each thabaqah sanad will determine the level of the Hadith, this is explained further in the hadith classification.

Things that need to be noted to understand the traditions associated with sanad are:

  • The integrity of the chain
  • Amount
  • the narrator finally

  1. kill

Regarding respect or editors, what needs to be considered in understanding the hadith are:

  • The end of the chain of transmission as a source editor, what was the cause of the Prophet Muhammad,
  • The matan hadith itself is stronger in relation to others if it exists to weaken or strengthen and then with a verse in the Quran it contradicts itself.

Hadith Classification

The classification of hadith can be divided according to several criteria, namely the end of the chain of transmission, the integrity of the chain of transmission, the number of speakers or narrators, and the level of authenticity of the hadith, if the hadith is accepted. or not.


  1. Based on Ujung Sanad

Based on this classification, hadiths are divided into three groups, namely marfu’ (raised), mauquf (still) and maqthu’:

  • Hadith marfu’ is a hadith whose current is directed directly to the Prophet Muhammad (example: hadith above)
  • The hadeeth of Mauquf is a hadeeth of the companions of the Prophet whose chain ceases without any signs, either words or deeds that show the level of marfu’. For example al-bukhari in the book al-fara’id (legal inheritance) who said that abu bakar, ibn abbas and ibn al-zubair: “The grandfather is (treated as) a father”. The statement in the example is unclear, whether it comes from the Prophet’s companions or just an opinion. However, if friends use phrases like “We are ordained..”, “We are not allowed”, “We are used to… if it is with the Prophet”, the Hadith level is no longer equivalent to mauquf but marfu’ .
  • Hadith Maqthu’ is a hadith whose chain resulted in tabi’in (substitute) or below. An example is: Imam Muslim narrates in the preamble of validity that Ibn Sirin said: “This knowledge (hadith) is a religion, so be careful where you take your religion.”

The authenticity of the hadith is divided into several groups depending on factors in the state of the sanad chain or speakers. However, this classification is still very important to remember, this classification is useful to distinguish the words and actions of the companions from the words of Prophet Muhammad and the tabi’in which are very useful in the field of construction in fiqh (Suhaib Hasan, Hadith Science) .


  1. Based on chain integrity or chain layer

This classification based on this hadith is divided into several categories namely Musnad, Mursal, Munqathi’, Mu’allaqa, Mu’dlal and Mudallas. Wholeness means that the chain of sanad is that every speaker at all levels is possible in time and condition to hear from the speakers above him.

Sanad illustration

  • Hadith Recorder.
  • Speaker 5.
  • Speaker 4.
  • Penutur 3 (tabi’ut tabi’in).
  • Speaker 2 (tabi’in).
  • Speaker 1 (The Companions) -Rasulullah.

Musnad Hadith, A hadith that is relatively Musnad if the order of the hadith owned by the sanad is not disturbed in certain parts. The speaker sequence allows for the transmission of hadith based on time and conditions, the narrators believed to have found and delivered the hadith. This hadith is also called muttashilus sanad or maushul.

  • Hadith Mursal, when speaker 1 is not found or, in other words, tabi’in directly attributes to Prophet Muhammad (example: tabi’in (speaker 2) said: “The Messenger of Allah said…” obscure friend that told you).
  • Hadith Munqathi’, when the sanad breaks into one speaker or two speakers that are not consecutive except Shahabi.
  • Hadith Mu’dlal, at the moment the chain is interrupted successively in two generations.
  • Hadith Mu’allaq, when sanad is cut, speaker 5-1, also known as sanad, does not exist. Example: “A hadeeth saying recorder, came to what the Prophet said…” there is no clear link between the Messenger of Allah.
  • Hadith Mudallas, when one of the narrators says “..the A said ..” or “This hadith A ..” without clarity “..to me ..”; which does not expressly indicate that the tradition was transmitted to him directly. It may be that among them there is no other narrator who is unknown or not mentioned in the sanad. This hadeeth is also called a hidden defect, because the hadeeth that is narrated through a chain of transmission gives the impression that there are no defects, when in fact there are or there are weaknesses in the hadeeth that are covered up.

  1. Based on the number of speakers

The number of speakers in question is the number of speakers in each chain of transmission levels, or the availability of several different paths that become the sanad of the hadith. Based on the number of speakers, it is divided into mutawatir and mundane hadiths.

  • Mutawatir hadiths are hadiths narrated by a group of people of various persuasions, there is no possibility that everyone agrees to lie all the time. Thus, the mutawatir hadith has several sanads and the number of speakers in each generation layer (thaqabah) scores.
  • Scholars differ on the mutawatir hadith about the minimum number of sanad (partial sets of 20 and 40 people in each layer of the sanad). Mutawatir hadith itself can be distinguished between two types, namely mutawatir lafzhy (same editorial pronunciation throughout the story) and ma’nawy (there are editorial differences, but the meaning is the same in all stories).
  • Hadith Sunday, is a hadith that was narrated by a group of people, but did not reach the level of mutawatir.
  • Hadith Munday is divided into three types, among others: gharib, aziz, masyhur.

  1. Based on the authenticity of Hadith

The hadith level of authenticity category is the most important classification and conclusion about the degree of acceptance or rejection of the hadith. In hadith this classification is divided into four levels, namely:

  • Sahih Hadith, which is the highest level of acceptance of a hadith.
  • Hadith Hasan, when the hadith chain continues, but there is a slight weakness in the narrator (narrator); for example, the memory associated with the narrator is fair but imperfect. But not syadz or deformed eyes.
  • The hadith is doubtful (weak) the hadith is not sanadnya followed (being mauquf hadith, maqthu’, mursal, Mu’allaqa, mudallas, munqathi’ or mu’dlal), or narrated by people who are unjust or strong memory, or contain deviations or defects.
  • Hadith Maudlu’, if the hadith is suspected to be false or artificial because in sanad he encounters a chain speaker known as a liar.

Hadith Qudsi

Hadith qudsi is the hadith of Prophet Muhammad that is taken directly from the word of Allah. The meaning of this hadith is from Allah, but unlike the Quran, the words are the words of the Prophet. This qudsi hadith was partially handed over to Muslims by certain apostles. Therefore, the validity of hadith qudsi, which is similar to others and is measured in the same way, is greatly exaggerated.

So, a little discussion on the Hadith Definition: Structure, Classification and Hadith Qudsi! We hope this discussion can add insights and knowledge for all of us, and we thank you for listening to our review. If you found our review helpful, please share it :).

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