Definition of Social Institutions, Functions and Types – In everyday life, people cannot be alone as individuals. There must always be interaction between people before it can be called life. This interaction also indicates that society is a social being that definitely needs the presence of other people. This is the way of social life that will continue to occur.
Social life is also not formed from the individual himself. A society is also formed from social institutions. In addition to having an important role in social life, social institutions also consist of various types. Each type does not function separately, but supports each other’s functions for the realization of a harmonious life.
Meaning of Social Institution
Regardless, the institution is defined as an institution in which there is a set of rules that are regulatory. The term institution itself has been widely used in various fields such as correctional institutions, financial institutions, educational institutions and the like. While in terms, the meaning of social institutions they are norms that are defined to regulate people’s lives.
The norms that govern people’s lives are formed by the community itself based on needs. In addition, norms can develop according to the changes that apply, maintaining their nature, that is, the normative. The existence of a set of norms applies to each other and influences each other. Its objective is to guarantee the stability and functionality of life in society.
In addition to general understanding, social institutions or what is called in English social institution also translated by several experts. They have different definitions of what a social institution is, although they can all come to the same conclusion. To further enrich knowledge about the meaning of social institutionsunderstand the definitions of the following experts.
- Paul Horton and Chester L Hunt define social institutions as systems of social norms and relationships that unite certain values and procedures in order to meet the basic needs of society.
- Peter L. Berger defines social institutions as a procedure that forms a certain pattern to suppress and force human actions to move in a manner considered to be in accordance with society’s desires.
- Koentjaraningrat explained that social institutions are activity-centered systems of behavior and relationships to meet the complexities of special needs in human life.
- Meanwhile, according to Seorjono Soekanto, social institutions are a set of norms at all levels that revolve around a basic need in people’s lives.
Functions of Social Institutions
after knowing the meaning of social institutions in general, as well as based on the opinion of various experts, it is also important to know what it does. As can be seen from the definition, social institutions have a general regulating function. However, in more detail, the function of social institutions can be more profound in some social orders. This is how social institutions work:
- Keeping Order in Society
An orderly social life is the dream of every individual. The reason is in the life of an orderly society, there is calm and balance in carrying out activities. This has an impact on the daily lives of people who will avoid problems. This is an explanation of the main function of social institutions.
Definition of social institutions said that there is a set of rules that apply for regulatory purposes. In this case, the norm is useful as a guide for living social life. In addition, these norms also function as limits that clearly regulate how one should behave. The purpose of the norm in general is to regulate individuals not to commit deviant behavior.
In addition to being a tool of regulation and limitation, the existence of social institutions is also useful for maintaining integration. What became of his understanding that social institutions consist of a set of agreed-upon norms. Because it was formed due to community approval, the community also has the same values to embrace. With the same values, the integrity of the community will be maintained.
Norms in social institutions function as both limits and controllers. The reason is in the meaning of social institutions not only to focus on arranging and forming a harmonious life, but also to avoid various problems. The standard will act as a controller to be able to make the community avoid any kind of problem.
- As a need fulfillment tool
The needs that are focused at this point are not about basic needs such as food and shelter. The need in question is the need for a safe, peaceful and controlled community life. The norms established as social institutions function to fulfill these needs. In the end, other needs, including basic needs, will also be met.
Types of Social Institutions
switch between the meaning of social institutions along with their functions, the types of social institutions are also important points that must be known. The reason is that in society there are various types of social institutions, each formed with different norms. To this end, all types of social institutions share a common vision. Below are the types of social institutions and their explanations.
The family is the most basic social institution of society. It is said to be basic because the family is the first place for individuals to know life. From the family, the individual then moves on to the wider community. For this reason, family social institutions must be able to introduce good norms and positive values in life and then become the main character.
It cannot always be said that educational institutions are second only to family social institutions. The reason is that not all individuals have the opportunity to form character in formal educational institutions. However, this social institution is no less important because in this institution several values are taught. Based on the meaning of social institutionsThis educational institution also plays a role in shaping future generations.
Economic institutions play a very important role in people’s lives. In this institution, production, distribution and consumption activities are regulated to meet the needs of the community. The main objective of this institution is clear, namely to ensure the satisfaction of the needs of all people in general.
As a function in the regulation of society, this type of social institution focuses on governance, which is usually based on territory. The arrangement of the government based in this area is important because there will be certain authorities that will regulate life in the area. This institution also works to provide social services to the community.
The last type of social institution is the religious institution. This institution specifically regulates life between individuals in society, as well as the relationship between individuals and their creators. In this arrangement there are usually several activities related to worship. In addition, there are also places of worship as a tangible manifestation of the functioning of this institution. Each institution has its own rules for its adherents based on belief.
The existence of social institutions in society is not just a complement. Definition of social institutions nor is it just a general science that need not be applied. What is meant by social institutions is important to understand. Its function and purpose so its types must be understood to create a harmonious community life.