Globalization comes from the English language, that is, globalization, global means the world and lization means process.
In Indonesian, globalization is a global process, a process that makes people open and dependent on one another without limits of time or distance.
In the era of globalization that is sustained by the development of technology, transportation and science, anyone can discover all kinds of information that spreads in the outside world quickly and easily.
Globalization is also defined as a world of borders or a unified world.
One of the positive effects of globalization is that there are benefits, but on the other hand there are also disadvantages.
It all depends on how everyone is able to respond to it, just note that globalization is different from the term global warming or global warming.
Curious about UNDERSTANDING GLOBALIZATION: Causes, Theories, Characteristics and Impacts, read more below.
Many experts explain the meaning of globalization. Some of these definitions of globalization are as follows:
- Globalization is a worldwide social relationship that is connected to each other so that events from different places can have an impact elsewhere. (Anthony Giddens),
- Globalization is the formation of a system of organization and communication between people around the world to follow the same system and rules. (Soemardjan stamp).
- Understanding globalization is an act of a process or policymaking that makes something global, both in its scope and in its application. (The Dictionary of American Heritage).
The era of globalization can be easily understood as an era in which advances in science, technology and means of transport encourage human life to be borderless, both geographical and cultural.
An example of globalization in a simple way is that you can find out what information is happening around the world.
Or you can easily travel from one place to another quickly, even if the distance is hundreds or thousands of kilometers.
THEORY OF GLOBALIZATION
There are several theories of Globalization that are discussed by experts, and one of them is the theory presented by Cochrane and Pain that explains that there are 3 main important actors in Globalization, namely:
1. Globalists’ Theory of Globalization
Globalists explain that globalization will have direct consequences on life around the world, that there will be a homogeneous cultural onslaught that will spread throughout the world later on.
In this regard, positive globalists say it can make the world community more open-minded and tolerant of cultures outside their own culture.
However, negative globalists say this can undermine each society’s unique culture and consider it one of the superpower’s efforts to colonize other cultures in the world.
2. The Traditionalists’ Theory of Globalization
This theory is for people who don’t think that globalization is happening, they think that the process that is currently happening is an impact of changes that have been going on since ancient times.
3. Transformalist Globalization Theory
These are people who are somewhere between globalists and traditionalists, who think that if it is true that globalization is happening, it is simply an exaggeration.
4. Other Theories of Globalization
The following Theory of Globalization is mentioned by an expert named George Ritzer who says whether the era of Globalization is marked by developments in the field of communication like the telephone and television and ends with global public awareness about it.
CAUSES OF THE GLOBALIZATION PROCESS
There are causes and drivers that make this globalization process possible, which include:
1. Technology and Information Development
The emergence of developments in information and communication technology that have an impact on the ease of financial transactions taking place across the country.
For some time now, there have been many developments in the field of technology related to financial transactions that can make it easier for anyone to transact not only in their own country, but in other countries as well.
2. International Cooperation of Many Countries
The second cause of globalization is due to the occurrence of a lot of international cooperation that facilitates financial transactions carried out by different countries.
So it is this economic sector that makes many products from abroad enter the country or vice versa.
3. Ease of Transport
The increasingly advanced transport system facilitates the movement of people and also the sending of goods, even though they are very far away.
4. Growing Open Economy
The era of globalization also occurred because the countries of the world started to open up in the economic field, so that global trades emerged that caused many types of products to be exchanged from one place to another.
Products received may contain culture and elements from other countries that affect the culture in your own country.
So finally, the era of globalization is also boosted because the money market is now global and makes financial transactions in a country bigger.
In essence, all the causes of this era of globalization are due to increasingly open economic activities between countries, facilitating interaction between countries in the world, establishing cooperation in various fields that impact the entry of new cultures, new knowledge, new things. from outside to inside, country or vice versa.
In order not to have a negative impact on a country, globalization must be supported by the awareness of maintaining and loving the local or own culture.
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CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALIZATION
Globalization has several characteristics, namely:
1. Changes in the Concept of Space and Time Distance
Through the support of technology in the form of television, smartphones and the internet, communication can be done quickly.
Information from parts of the world can be immediately known to someone even in other parts of the world.
Advances in transportation have also made distances of hundreds or thousands of kilometers easily accessible in just hours or days.
2, The emergence of interdependence in the field of economy and commerce
This is due to the growth of international trade and the dominance of organizations like the WTO or the world trade organization that oversees world trade and so on.
3. Greater cultural interaction
With television and other media, humans acquire new knowledge and know more about the diversity that exists in the world or in other countries.
4. Growing Common Problems
In the era of globalization, problems that arise in a country can become problems of mutual or international interest, such as human rights, environment, war crimes that occur in a country.
Positive and Negative Impacts of GLOBALIZATION
Impact Globalization has an impact on various sectors of society. The impact of globalization or the influence of globalization can be both positive and negative, including:
1. Positive Impact of Globalization
- Ease of obtaining information and knowledge
- Improvement of socioeconomic life
- Advances in technology, communication, transport and information that facilitate human activities.
2. Negative impacts of globalization
- It is easy for Western culture to enter and influence local cultural values.
- The fading of cultural values like mutual cooperation and so on.
- Damage to the environment and increased air pollution
- Rising rates of smuggling of illegal or prohibited goods
Impact on Politics and Economy
So globalization also has an impact on other fields, be it politics, economics, education and others.
1. Impact on the Political Field
With the presence of globalization that has taken place, the patterns of political thinking in various countries have become more open to achieving a better state administration system than before in improving the welfare of society.
With a better state administration system, state agencies also change for the better, for example in Indonesia, which previously did not know the DPD and the Constitutional Court, now with globalization it is possible to have these two agencies.
So with globalization, public awareness of the importance of politics is becoming more and more open and political parties are emerging more and more.
However, there are also negative impacts of globalization on the political field, such as the emergence of greed for political power and the habit of money politics or money politics that makes the world of politics dirty and full of dishonesty.
2. Economic Impact
With this globalization, the provision of goods needed by the community becomes easier, as many goods can easily enter the country from abroad.
The small economy sector is growing and has the potential to reach overseas markets.
It is not a difficult thing nowadays to receive news and news from a place that is thousands of kilometers from where someone is at the same time.
Because everything seems to be easy to know without the need to make a complicated effort.
Unlike in the past, news from other countries or the world that happened a month ago will only be known on this day or now.
The existence of globalization is certainly supported by the existence of an increasingly developed and facilitating technology in all aspects of human life.
In the age of globalization as it is today, everything that is done becomes more effective, efficient and faster.
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Globalization is taken from the English language, that is, Globalization, global means the world and lization means process.
Translated into Indonesian, globalization is a global process, a process that makes people open and dependent on one another without limits of time and distance.
Globalization itself has a big impact on some aspects of the lives of the people of the world and also on countries like in the areas of economy, politics, education and so on.
That’s why it’s important to learn about UNDERSTANDING GLOBALIZATION: Causes, Theories, Characteristics and Impacts completely as discussed above.